Index

Index

1–2–3 block

Abrasive cloth, polishing, procedure, 299–300

Adhesives, 421–422

Angle irons & plates, 10, 361–363

Arbors, 229

Ball bearings,

    annealing, drilling, procedure, 473–475

    holding in vise, 474–475

Balls (spheres), materials & uses, 475–476

Bandsaws, vertical metal‑cutting, 50–53

Blocks, bench, 30–31

Bolt,

    extractors, 156–157

    nomenclature, 403

    pre-tensioning, 153

    -hole patterns, 395–396

Bolts,

    carriage, 408

    machine, 407

Boring,

    heads, milling machine, 343–344

    lathe, procedure, 246–248

    milling machine, procedure, 381

Bridgeport-style milling machines, advantages

    & characteristics, 310–311

Broaching,

    performing, 74, 76

    troubleshooting, 77

Burrs, HSS & carbide, 66

Button sets, toolmakers’, 16

Calipers,

    digital slide, 7–8

    hermaphrodite, 5–6

Case hardening steel, procedure, 439–441

Cat heads, workholding in, 303

Center,

    adjustable, ball, 259

    drilling, 92–94

    drills, sizing, 203

    holes, drilling, 202

Centering,

    milling cutters over work, 371–372

    side cutters, milling, 372

Chain drilling, step drill, procedure, 471

Chatter, lathes, 232–233

Chisels, 34–35

 

Chucks,

    drill, 108–110

    four-jaw, independent, 214

    four-jaw, centering work, 216

    three-jaw universal, 213

    type 5C mounted, 223

Clamping work in milling vise, 358

Clamps,

    C-type, 36

    locking hold-down, 111

    machinists’, 36

    milling table, 355–356

Collars, graduated, 180–181

Collet,

    blocks, 387

    chuck extensions, double‑angle, 336–337

    stops, 223

Collets,

    lathe, 217–223

    R8 & 5C comparison, 322

    rubber flex, 220

    step (step chucks), 220

    5C emergency, square & hex, 218–219, 222

    WW (Webster Whitcombe), 221–222

Colors, tempering, 436–437

Contour saws, 50–53

Coolants for milling, 354

Counterboring, 88–89

Countersinking, 90–91

Critical temperature, determining, 431

Cutoff saws & wheels, abrasive, 64–65

Cutters,

    gasket, 123–124

    milling, 333

Cutting,

    acrylic sheet goods, 476

    bolt slots, new, 50

    hollow hemispheres, procedure, 467–470

Deburring tools, 37

Digital readouts (DROs),

    lathe, 187

    milling machine, 323–324

Dividers, spring, 5

Dividing operations, 387–391

Dovetails,

    measuring, 381–382

    milling, procedure, 382–383

Dowel pins, locking, 480–481

Drill,

    chucks, Jacobs vs. Albrecht, 108

    chucks, lathe, 210–212

    hole position, correcting, 114

Drill press,

    operations, 88–92, 112–119

    chuck designs, 108

    components & controls, 87–88

    drilling, procedure, 112–113

Drill press,

    flycutting, 91

    sizes, 84

    workholding methods, 111

Drill,

    rod & blanks, 442–444

    bushings, 115

Drilled hole size & accuracy, 117–118

Drilling,

    center holes in lathe, 201–206

    coolants, 116

    deep holes, 103–104

    fixtures, 116

    glass, plastic, rubber, 120–121

    speeds & feeds, 96–97

    lathe, procedure, 245–246

    pilot holes, 117

    safety, 124

    socket head cap screws, 472

    spring steel, 472

Drills,

    Brad- or spur-pointed wood, 107

    Carbide-tipped masonry, 105–106

    for hand-reaming fractional‑inch

        holes, 70–71

    Forstner, 107–108

    masonry, 105–106

    Morse taper shank, 109–110

    multi-diameter step, 104–105

    power helix, wood, 106–107

    reduced-shank, 100

    Silver & Deming, 100

    sizing tap & clearance, 144–145

    spade, wood, 106

    step, 100

    straight flute, die, 105

    wood, 106–107

    checking diameter, 113

    materials & coatings for, 101–102

    taper shank, 103

    see twist drills

Drive,

    designs, bolts & screws, 404–406

    plates & lathe dogs, 207–208

    vs. head design, terminology, 404–405

Eccentrics, machining, 265

Edge,

    finders, using, 368–369

    locating with DTI, 370–371

End mill,

    applications, 332

    cut size, 373–375

    designs, 333–334

    selection, 373

End milling, procedure, 375

End mills,

    holding, 335–338

    installing & removing, 337–338

    sizes, 335

Environment, shop, 456

Face plates, 208–210

Facing, lathe, procedure, 241

Fatigue life factors, 452

Files,

    Curved-tooth, 41

    handles, 46

    history, 39

    long-angled lathe, 43

    needle & Swiss pattern, 44

    nomenclature, 39

    rasp-tooth, 41

    single-cut & double-cut, 41

    characteristics & designs, 40–42

Filing,

    round corners, procedure, 473

    safety, 46

    techniques & practices, 44–46

Fit classifications, fasteners, 411–412

Flat stock, steel, ground, 444–445

Flycutters, milling, 344–345

Flycutting, procedure, 379–380

Follower rests, 225–226

Force fits, 420–421, Appendix Table A–4

Friction driving, lathes, 461–463

Gage blocks, 17–19

Gages,

    dial indicator, 12–13

    height, 8–9

    radius, 15

    screw pitch, 130

    small hole, 14

    surface, 8–9

    telescoping, 13

Gearboxes, quick-change, 184–185

Gibs, lathe, 182–183

Grinder safety, 60–61

Grinders,

    bench & pedestal, uses, 57–61

    bench & pedestal, wheel speeds, 58

    disc, safety & uses, 61–62

    hand-held, uses & styles, 62–64

 

Grinding,

    mechanics of, 55

    processes & applications, 56

    radii, lathe tools, procedure, 463–464

    wheel materials, 59

    wheels, truing & dressing, 58–59

Hacksaws,

    blades, carbide grit, 49

    materials & designs, 47–49

    using, 49–50

Hammers, 33–34

Hand-tappers, 147

Hand-feed drill (chuck) accessory, 212

Hardening steel, 428–431

Hazards, machine shop, 453–454

Headstocks, 175

Heat, machine shop applications, 446

Heli-Coils®, applying, procedure, 159–160

Hemispheres, cutting hollow, procedure,

    467–470

Hemostats, 38

Holes, square or hex, making, 481–482

Horizontal milling, 397–400

Housekeeping, shop, 456

Inserts, (tungsten) carbide, 193, 199

Installing R8 collets & tool holders, 337–338

Iron,

    alloys, important engineering, 424

    microstructures, characteristics of, 428

    pure, behavior of, 425–426

Iron‑carbon diagram, 426–428

Job planning, 21–22

Keyway slot milling, 376–377

Knee‑&‑column milling machine–see

    Bridgeport®-style milling machine

Knife designs, 36

Knurling, 295–297

Lapping,

    abrasives, 81

    procedure, 81–82

    purpose & mechanics, 77–78

Laps, commercial & shop‑made, 80

Lathe,

    abrasive cloth polishing, procedure,

        298–300

    backgears, 185–187

    beds, 173–175

    boring, procedure, 246–248

    carriage, 179–180

    centers, 201, 204–205

    change‑gear ratios, 274–275

    chucks, 213–216

    collets, 217–223

    comparison table, 172

    compounds, setting, 182, 277–278

    countershafts, 185

Lathe,

    cutting tools,

        grinding, HSS & carbide, 193,

        Appendix Table A–1, Figure A–1, 483

        installing, 200–201

        lead angles, 197–198

        materials, 191–192

        mechanics, 194–195

        nomenclature, 194

        rake angles, 195–196

        shapes & functions, 198–200

    drill holding methods, 210–212

    drilling procedure, 245–246

    drive plates & dogs, 207–208

    face plates, 208–210

    facing procedure, 241–242

    factors in selecting, 167

    filing in, 268–269

    follower rests, 225–226

    gibs, 182–183

    graduated collars, 180–182

    headstocks, 175

    history of, 163–164

    horsepower, 166

    installation, maintenance & repair, 307–308

    knurling, 296–298

    leadscrews, 183–185

    leadscrew,

        threading,

            Acme threads, 293

            compound rest, 277–278

        external with thread-chasing dial,

            procedure, 279–282

            internal, procedure, 287–290

            left-hand, procedure, 283–284

            metric with inch lathe procedure,

                284–286

            multiple‑start, procedure, 291–293

            without thread-chasing dial, 283

            inch & metric threads, 284–286

            principle, 271

            square threads, 294–296

            tapered threads, procedure, 286–287

    mandrels, 227–228

    micrometer stops, 290

    milling in, procedure, 302

    motor & motor drives, 185

    operation preparing for, 236–237

    parting-off tools, 242–243

    parting-off, procedure, 241–244

    parts of, 173

    radii cutting, procedure, 230–231, 300–301

    rear tool posts, 232

    recommended cutting speeds for, 235

    safety, 308

    shaping & grooving, 248–251

Lathe,

    size measurements, 165–166

    speeds & feeds, 232–233

    spindle nose designs, 177–178

    spindles, 176, 217

    spur drivers, 231

    start-indexing, 292

    steady rests, 224–225

    tailstock alignment, 237–238

    tailstocks, 178–179

    taper attachments, 229, 260–261

    taper turning, compounds, 261

    taper turning, procedures, 262–263

    taper turning, reamers, 261

    taper turning, tool bits, 261

    thread cutting tools, 272

    thread

        gages, 273

        starting & terminating, 269–270

        -chasing dials, 273–275

    threading

        follower rests, shop‑made, 306

        cuts depth, 278–279

        cutting speeds, 278

        lubrication, 278

        square threads, 294–296

        taps & dies, procedure,

            267–268

    tool post grinding, procedure, 303–304

    tool posts, 188–190

    tools, grinding radii, 463–464

    trepanning in, 263–264

    turning, procedure, 239–240

Layout,

    fluid, 1–2

    work guidelines, 21

Lead angle, 197–198

Leadscrew threading,

    general, 269–272

    advantages, 269

    cutting tools, 272

    lathe, 183–184

Lens, wrenches, 479

Locating,

    over round stock, 371–372

    under spindle, 367–368

Low‑melting alloys to secure work, 304–305

Machining,

    crankshafts, 266

    eccentrics, 265

Magnifiers, 6

Mandrels,

    general, 227–228

    stub (for mills), 341

Mechanics of,

    hardening steel, 428–430

Mechanics of,

    metal cutting, 234

    metal fatigue, 446–448

Metals, structure, 425

Micrometers, 7

Milling, conventional vs. climb, 349–350

Milling cutters,

    general, 332–349

    angle, 341

    dovetail, 343

    face, 339

    formed, 342

    keyseat, 343

    plain, 340

    shell, 342

    feed per tooth, 352

    flycutters, 344–345, 379–380

    helices, 392–394

Milling machine,

    advantages, 310

    angle plates & angle tables, 361–363

    angling head, 366–367

    axes, 316

    backlash, 320–321

    base & vertical column, 318

    controls & adjustments, 324–331

    drilling, procedure, 348–349

    feeds & speeds, 350–353

    flycutting, method, 344–345, 379–380

    gibs, 331

    head tramming, 366

    history of, 309

    jacks for, 356

    knee & column, characteristics, 310

    knee, saddle, table & leadscrews, 319–320

    locating work under spindle, 367

    motor, drive & controls, 324–331

    parallels, 359–360

    parts of, 316–324

    power feeds, 322–323

    quill & spindle, 322, 328–330

    quill stop, 330–331

    ram & turret, 318

    safety, 400–402

    table clamps, 355–356

    table locks, 331

    using edgefinder in, 368–370

Milling speeds, Sherline recommended, 353

Milling,

    table, 319–320

    T-slots, procedure, 380

MSDSs (Material Safety Data Sheets),

458–459

Myford Super 7 Bench-Top Lathe, 169

Nuts, 411

Parallels, 359–360

Parting-off, 242–244

Pins,

    coiled, spring & roll, 419

    dowel, 417–418

    taper, installing, procedure, 418

Pipe & tubing cleaning, abrasives,

    shop-made tools & procedure, 477–478

Pliers, 31–33

Pre-tensioning bolts, 412–414

Punches,

    arched & Osborne, 122

    automatic center, 30

    center, 3–4

    chassis, 123

    drive, 35

    prick, 3–4

    transfer, 114–115

    Whitney, 121–122

Quenching steel, 432–435

R8 collets, 322

Radii cutters, 230–231, 300–301

Rake angles, 195–196

Reamer tapering, 262–263

Reamers,

    adjustable, hand, 71–73

    chucking vs. hand, 70–71

    other designs, 73

    sizes & materials, 69

    using, procedure, 70

Reaming,

    mechanics, 67

    problems & solutions, 71

Rear tool posts, lathe, 232

Rings, snap (retaining), 419–420

Rivets, 416–417

Rotary tables & dividing (indexing) heads,

    general, 388–396

    angle setting methods, 390–391

Rounding corners, filing, 473

Round stock, locating over, 371–372

Rubber rollers, reconditioning, 465–466

Safety,

    electrical, 458

    fire-related, 458

    practices general, 456–457

    practices personal, 454

Saws,

    applications, 47

    hole, 92

    jewelers’, 48

    milling machine slitting, 345–347

Saws,

    reciprocating, Sawzall®‑type, 53–54

Scrapers, metal shop, 37

Screwdrivers,

    designs & sizes, 26–27

Screwdrivers,

    gunsmiths’, 27–28

    jewelers’, 28

Screws & bolts,

    shoulder & stripper, 410

    socket head cap, 407

Screws,

    drywall & deck, 409–410

    loosening & locking methods, 414–415

    machine, 406–407

    removal, frozen & broken, procedures,

        153–158

    self-drilling, 409

    self-tapping, 408–409

    set, 407–408

    vs. bolts terminology, 403

Scribers, 2

Sheet goods, acrylic, cutting, 476

Sherline,

    Miniature Lathe, 168–169

    Model 5400‑DRO Miniature

    Vertical Milling Machine, 312–313

Shoulders, cutting, lathe, 250–251

Sleeves, broached, 481–482

Slitting & slotting saws, milling machine,

345–347, 385

Soldering, brazing & welding, 422

Spacer blocks, miniature, 470

Spotfacing, 89

Spur drivers, 231

Squares,

    engineers’, 20

    machinists' combination, 4

    master precision, 20

    miniature die makers’, 20

    with center-finding heads, 5

Squaring

    in vise, 364

    -up stock in a mill, 386–387

Steel,

    annealing, 441–442

    pins in T-slots to align work, 365

    rules, 3

    tempering, 435–439

Step collets (step chucks), 220

Stones, abrasive shaped & mounted, 65–66

Straight edges, 2

Stress, concentrators & modifications,

    449–451

Studs, 410–411

Surface plates, 10

Tailstock,

    alignment, 237–238

    general, 178–179

    tapering with, offset (or setover) method,

        254–259

Tap,

    & clearance drill sizing, 144–145

    chamfers, 139–140

    designs special, 141

    removal tools, 158–159

    wrenches, 142–143

Taper,

    attachments, 229, 259

    pins, 418

    turning, 252–262

Tapered threads, 286–287

Tapering with lathe compounds, 261

Tapers, measuring & specifying, 252–256

Tapping,

    aids, 147–149

    procedure, 146

Taps,

    general, 139–140

    chamfers, 140

    designs, 141

    nomenclature, 140

    wrenches for, 142–143

Tempering,

    small tools, procedure, 438

    steel, 435–436

Tempilstiks, 431

Test indicators (DTIs), 12–13

Thread,

    engagement, 144

    fit classifications, 152, 411

Thread forms,

    machinery, 136

    metric, 134

    miniature, 135

    pipe, 136–137

Unified Thread Series, 132–133

Thread,

    measurement,

    ring & plug gages, 129

    screw pitch gages, 130

    screw thread micrometers, 127

    thread triangles, 129

    three‑wire method, 128

    nomenclature, 126

    replacement & repair,

        E‑Z Lok, procedure, 161

        Heli-Coil, procedure, 159–160

        other options, 161

Threaded fasteners,

    important designs, 406–411

    locking methods, 414–415

    fasteners quality, 412

Threading,

    roll, advantages of, 151

    with taps, procedure, 146–147

    with dies, procedure, 149–151

Threads,

    coarse vs. fine, 137–138

    female, applying with taps, procedure, 139–149

    history of, 125

    male, applying with dies, procedure,

        149–151

    miniature, 135

    right- & left-handed, 130–131

    square, 136

    uses of, 126

Tool bit,

    holders, small, 191

    tapers, 260

    installation, 200

Tool post, grinding, procedure, 303

Tool posts,

    general, 188–190

    rear, 232

Tools, corner-rounding, 470, 473

Trammel points, 37–38

Tramming milling machine heads, 366

Transfer plugs & screws, 115

Trepanning, lathe, procedure, 263–264

T‑slots, machining procedure, 380–381

Tubing,

    aluminum, separating frozen, 476–477

    clamping in a vise, 25, 479–480

Turning,

    bushings from small stock, 465

    lathe, procedure, 239–240

    oversized work, 462–463

Turret mill–see Bridgeport®-style milling machine

Twist drill,

    cutting mechanics, 95–96

    feeds & speeds, 96–97

    hole size accuracy, 117–118

    nomenclature, 95

    designs & point angles, 99–100, 102–103

    shanks, 103

    sizing systems, 97–98

    checking diameter, 113

    extra‑long, shop-made, 118

    in milling machines, 348–349, 385

    Morse taper shank, 110

    point designs & angles, 102–103

    sharpening, 118

    standard lengths, 99

Universal,

    dial indicators (DTI), 12–13

Universal,

    right-angle irons, 10

Using DTIs to locate an edge, 370–371

V-blocks, 11, 360

Vise jaws, custom & protective, 24–25

Vises,

    bench, 23–24

    clamping in, 358

    drilling, 112–113

    milling, 357

    squaring in milling machines, 363–365

    swivel base, 357

    Toolmakers’, 359

V-blocks in, 360

Washers, 415

Woodruff keys, machining, procedure,

    377–379

Workholding method, watchmakers’, 304

Wrenches,

    Allen set screw, 29

    camera lens, 479

    hex, 29

    Torx®, 30

 

 

 

Thank you for reading excerpts from Machine Shop Essentials. If you have enjoyed reading so far, please purchase the book from the link below.

Using machine tools - lathes, mills and drill presses. The book explains how they operate, how to set up work, and how to safely use these tools.

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The Engineers' Workshop (UK), June, 2005

In almost all respects, this volume is a complete contrast, being 500 plus pages of bang up to-date material.

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Machine Shop Essentials is an excellent book which presents a wide array of basic machinist's know-how...Even from a brief look through it, I learned some new things....

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