Index

Index

Abrasive

 chop saws, 122

 wheel diamond dressers, 104–106,

  480–481

 paper holder, 129

Air wrench, attachments, 475–476

Alignment gage, table saw, 485–487

Aluminum, 47–48

 cutting fluids for, 58

 non-weldable alloys of, 80

 numbering system, 47

 shapes, 48

Angle

 blocks, 476

 cutting in mills, 359–361

 gages, 477

 plate clamping on, 370–371

 

Balancing methods, 510–511

Bandsaws, 187–214

 blades

  breaking in procedure, 197

  gage, 193

  metals, 195

  parts, 192

  radius, minimum cutting, 197

  rake angle, 194–195

  selecting tooth/inch, 195–196

  silver brazing procedure, 205–208

  splicing methods, 200–201

  splicing tips, 208

  tension, 197

  tooth patterns, 193

  tooth set, 194

  troubleshooting, 198–200

  welding procedure, 201–205

 chip analysis, 198

 contouring procedure, 190

 functions, 188

 operations, 189

Bandsawing

 removing island material without

  breaking blades, 209

 techniques, 190–192

Bolt-hole patterns, laying out, with

 chords, procedure, 429

Bolts

 locking methods, 457

 marking method, 457

 securing to a plate, 456

 shear loads on, 73–74

 snap-off head, 467–468

 stress distribution in threads, 72–73

Boring, in the milling machine, 388–401

 (see Milling Machines)

Broaching, 431–437

 indexing collar machining, procedure

  436–437

 lubricants for, 433

 single keyway, procedure, 431–433

 troubleshooting, 433

 two keyways at 90º, procedure,

  434–435

 

Calipers, digital, 18–22

 accessories, 22

 using, 18–21

Center drills

 broken, recovering from, procedure,

  166

 dedicated MT holder, procedure,

  310–311

 extra-long, in milling machines, 387

 purposes, 146

Center punches – see punches

Centers, sacrificial, 437–438

Chemical ingredients, 80

Chords, for bolt-hole patterns, 429

Chucks

 drill, 147–148

  ball-bearing, 148

  keyed, 147

  keyless, 148

  removing arbors, 149

  repairing, 150–151

  storage for, 10

Chucks, drill (continued)

 lathe, 245–269

 magnetic, 124

Clamps

 bar, designs for holding, 507

 hose, 499

 KantTwist, 490–491

 strap for mills, 363–365

 Vise-Grip, 491–492

  shop-modified, 489–490

Cleats, in plate, design for, 506

Coaxial centering indicator, 348–349

Collet

 adapters, 277–278

 blocks

  milling machine applications,

   366–367

  pin wrench for making, 492–493

 chucks, 278–280

 closers, designs, for lathes, 275–277

Collets

 advantages & disadvantages, 273–274

 5C collets

  dimensions of, 67

  emergency, boring, procedure,

   281–282

  QCTP tool holders, 231

  size ranges, 273

 storage for, 10

 lathe, 270–278

 R8 collets, dimensions of, 67

Concepts, key machining, 78–80

 chemical ingredients, 80

 clearcutting, 79

 cumulative errors, 78

 non-weldable metals, 80

 removing excess material, 78

 sacrificial material, 78

 threads show distance, 79

Countersinks, 145, 168–169

Cutting fluids

 cooling with, 59–62

 for aluminum, 158

Cylindrical assemblies, securing, design

 for, 468–469

 

Deburring, 30

Dial indicators

 cheap vs. expensive, 25–26

 in milling machine, holding, 346–348

 stepped spindle bushing for, 347

 when cutting male MTs, 294

Diamond dressers, 104–105, 480–481

Dividers, ball-end, 27

Dowel pins

 designs, 75–78

 installing, common problems, 179–180

 shortening, procedure, 179

Drill & tap extension, making,

 procedures, 167, 186

Drill press

 chuck key storage, 175

 clamps, 163

 good practices, 164–165

 magnetic, 160–161

 low-speed limitations, 142

 safety, 162–165

 typical mishap, 165

Drilling holes

 controlling depth with shims, 158

 deep, procedure, 153–154

 deeper than drill press stroke, 161

 in long stock in a drill press, 154

 in machinery castings, 155

 in machinery, shafts in place,

  procedure, 155–156

 in precise locations, procedure, 153

 increasing diameter of existing,

  procedure, 438–439

 large, in stainless steel, procedure,

  158–160

 pilot, in tight locations, procedure, 157

 step-drilling, procedure, 151–153

Drills

 118º point angle, 140

 basic assortment, 144–147

 body, 134–135

 design variables, 137–138

 development of, 131

 dubbing for brass & copper, 142

 extension fixtures, 167–168

 flutes, 137

 helix angle, 135

 lip relief angle, 138

 mechanics, 140–141

 parts of, 133–137

 point angle & lip shape, 138

 point angle, 135–136

 point designs, 139–140

 rake angle, 136–137

Drills (continued)

 shank, 133–134

 sharpening, 143–144

 speeds & feeds, 141–144

 web thinning, 143

 

Edge finders, 345–346

 finding center-punch marks, 350

 setting DRO axes, 333

End mills, 372–382

 carbide insert, 376

 carbide single-lip cutters, shop-made,

  377, 497

 corner-rounding, 383

 cutting windows with, 380

 designs, 372–375

 form cutters, 376

 guidelines for cuts, 377, 379

 holding small, 382–383

 limitations, handling, 383–384

 materials, 375–376

 operations, 377–378

 plate trimming, 379–380

 rules of thumb, 382

 slotting, 381

 storage for, 10

Engine turning, 48

 

Fasteners

 anti-loosening steps, 71

 checking threads, 74

 cleaning up thread ends, 114–115

 hex, driving method, 472–473

 key factors, 71

 shear loading failures, 73

 shortening

  with abrasive wheels, procedure, 108

  screws & bolts, fixtures for, 451–456

 threaded, 71–74

 threads, repair tools for, 460–464

 tightening, 74

File

 cut shapes, 82

 holders, shop-made, 92

Files

 American-pattern or engineers’, 84–85

 bent, 91

 categories, 84–93

 depth gage method, 93–94

 precision, 84

 rasps & curved tooth, 90

 Swiss- vs. American-pattern, 83

 three-square, 89

 tungsten carbide, 90

 warding, 88

Filing

 flat, fixture for, 92–93

 long-angled or lathe, 88

 needle, 85

 practices, 90–91

 terms, 81

Fixtures for shortening SHCSs and hex

 screws, 455–456

 

Gage

 angle, 477

 height, 23

 hole diameter, 478–479

 table saw alignment, 485–487

Gaskets

 compounds, 464–465

 replacing, 464

Granite plates, 24

Grinder

 abrasives, 121–122

 belt, 116

 bench & pedestal, 17, 95–122

 corner rounding method, 114

 die & pencil, 117–119

 disc, 112

 tool bits, 119–121

Grinders

 hand-held electric, 121

 mobile base, building, project, 127–128

 overview, 95

 securing, 96

 surface & Blanchard, 123–127

 tool rests, 97

  improving existing, 100–101

  shop-made replacement, 97–99

Grinding

 lathe tool bits, 237–241

 wheels

  abrasive stick dressing, 106

  materials & grits, 101–102

  mounting, 102

  star wheel dressing procedure, 107

  truing procedure, 104–105

  truing vs. dressing, 104

  vibration, 102–104

Half-cylinders,

 cutting perfect, 440

Hardness testing, 51–59

 ball-bearing drop tester, 57

 Brinell test method, 56

 complications, 55–56

 damage to parts, 57

 files, 54–55

 importance & advantages of, 51–52

 Rockwell test method, 52–54

 vs. tensile strength, 58–59

Holes

 finding the center of existing, 349

 flat-bottomed, making, 291

 in spring steel & hacksaw blades,

  procedure, 447–448

Hose clamp applicator, 495–496

Human factors

 eye glasses, 15

 machine tool height, 13–14

 work area lighting, 14

 

Indicators

 centering for mills, 348–349

 dial, 25

 

Keystock

 for shafts, 46

 upgrading disadvantages, 434

 

Lathes

 basic tooling list, 228–229

 chucks

  cradles for, 318–319

  adapter plates, 259

  care, 262

  centering round work, procedure,

   265

  clamping recommendations,

   267–268

  jaws

   non-reversible, 249

   regrinding, 263–264

   reversible one-piece, 249

   reversible, two-piece, 250

   reversing

    general, procedure, 250–251

    in Sherline chucks, 251–252

    two-piece jaws, procedure,

     252–255

Lathes (continued)

 chucks

  mounting

   adapter plates on chucks, 259–260

   D1-4 chuck on spindle, 261–262

  removing & replacing work in, 266

  spacers, 267

  spindle nose designs, 256–259

  adjustable runout, 248

  centering work in four–jaw, 295–296

  handling heavy, 269

  jaw design options, 249

  two-, three-, four- and six-jaws,

  245–247

 collets

  boring emergency, procedure,

   281–282

  chuck, 279–280

  adapters, 277–278

  advantages & disadvantages,

   273–274

  closer designs, 275–277

  designs, 271–272

  minimizing runout, 274

  size ranges, 273

  terms, 270, 280–281

 knurling

  applications, 300

  bumping, procedure, 306–307

  cut knurls, 308

  determining work diameter, 306

  knurls, 303–305

  processes, 301–303

  straddle procedure, 308–309

  tracking, 305

 turning techniques, 288–300

 5C chucks, 280–281

 bull-nose center for pipe, 293–294

 cross-feed dial movement, 288–289

 cutting thin-wall tubing, 296

 flat-bottomed holes, 291–292

 mandrels, self-locking, procedure for,

  295–296

 setting offsets with precision,

  procedure, 296–297

 setting tool height, 289–290

 Sherline tips, 298–300

 shoulders, 290–291

 trepanning vs. flycutting, 292–293

 work holding, friction driving, 286–288

 chuck, using with centers, 285

Lathes (continued)

 chucks, four-jaw, 285

 construction, 215–216

 cutting tools, HSS vs. tungsten carbide,

  236–237

 drives, 216–233

 emergency-stop foot bars, 225

 essentials accessories, 229

 fine tuning imported cutoff QCTPs,

  235

 formed tool bits, 241–243

 grinding double-sided cutter, 241–242

 grinding tool bits, 238–240

 lubrication, 225

 motor switch location, 225

 power feed designs, 223–224

 preparing carbide tool bits for use, 243

 QCTP, 229–231

  collet tool holders, 231–232

  compatibility between brands, 234

  industry size codes, 234

  reclocking, 233–234

 readouts, 226

 set-up checklist, 226–228

 shop-made boring bars, 244–245

 tool post T-nuts, 232

 turning, techniques, 288–289

 variable frequency drives, 220–222

 work holding

  cutting eccentrics, 284

  extra-long stock, 282

  mounting square stock in a three-jaw

   chuck, 283–284

  setting up steady & follower rests,

   285–286

  three-jaw chucks, 283

Lead

 hammer mold, 471–472

 pads & rod stock molds, 472

Lift plugs, making, procedure, 444

Lighting, work area, 14

 

Machine shop tools

 essential, 16–17

 nice-to-have, 18

Magnets, securing methods, 482

Mandrel, stub, 295

Marking

 & measuring, 18–28

 subtle workpiece, 471

Marks, witness, 28–29

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), 80

Measuring straight edges with piano wire,

 503–505

Metal grain, 62

Micrometer bridge, design, 477–478

Milling machine

 boring, 388–401

  advantages & disadvantages,

   388–389

  bars, left- and right-handed, 396

  heads, 390–393

   automatic, 399

   setting diameter on, 400–401

  factors in successful, 393–397

  limitations, 389–390

  procedure, 398–399

 Bridgeport design, 324

 clamping

  & work holding, 351–372

  angle plates, 370–370

 clamps

  cam, 369–370

  strap, 363–366

  knife-edge, 368–369

 clearcutting

  for auto engine dome, procedure,

   417–419

  with micrometer depth stop, 413–414

 conventional vs. climb milling,

  415–416

 crutches, 356

 cutting

  O-ring grooves, 400

  series of slots, 358–359

 depth stop accuracy, 410

 design, 326–329

 digital readouts, 329–334

 drawbar installation, procedure,

  414–415

 evolution, 324–326

 extra-long center drills in, 387

 face mills & flycutters, 402–405

 holding twist drills in, 385

 hole saw application, procedure,

  420–421

 locating center-punch marks in,

  349–350

 lubrication & wear, 337

 making angle cuts in, 359–360

Milling Machine (continued)

 manual feed handwheel, 406–407

 measuring & locating on, 345–351

 stop, procedure for making, 422–423

 table covers, 343–344

 work holding, 104

Milling (also see Milling Machine)

 milling with two vises, 357

 power feeds, 334–337

 precision depth stops, 412–413

 preventing table damage, 366

 quill feed

  lever, 406

  methods, 405–414

  under power, 408–410

  stops, 410–412

 rotary table alignment, 351

 S&D vs. MT shank drills in, 386–387

 safety, 428

 setting up new, 338–340

 slitting saw tips, 421–422

 squaring up stock, procedure, 384–385

 strap clamps, & T-bolts, 363–365

 sump covers, 42

 vise, 351–355

  clamping technique, 356–357

  preparing for use, procedure,

   341–343

  with extension bars, 357–358

Mock-ups, with pop rivets & corrugated

 box stock, 509–510

Morse, Stephen A., patent, 132–133

 

Nichrome wire repair method, 458

Nick-off on lathe and milling machine

 tool bits, 243–244

Nippers, sharpening, 474

Nuts, security, 467, 469–471

 

Oils, types of, 59

O-rings, 500–501

 

Pins

 dowel, 75–76, 178–180

 taper, 76–78

Pipe & tubing

 common types of, 44–45

 manufacturing processes, 44

 adding threads to tubing, 501–502

 schedule for pipe, 43

Pipe, vs. tubes, 43

Plans or concepts for making/machining

 abrasive paper holder, 129

 adding hardened steel to weld test

  fixture, 441–443

 air hose wire clamp applicator,

  495–496

 angle gage, 477

 bandsaw blade brazing fixtures,

  205–206

 bandsaw work holder, 213–214

 bolt shears, procedure, 452–454

 center drill extension for mills, 387

 collet block nut wrench, 492–493

 drill press tray, 169–170

 table saw alignment gage, 485–487

 thread repair chisel, procedure,

  493–495

 grinder mobile base, 127–128

 hex wrench stand, 174

 hole diameter measuring tool, 478–479

 indexing collar, 436

 box wrench handle, 309–310

 lathe

  center, bull-nose, 293–294

  chuck T-handle lengthening,

   317–318

  dedicated MT center-drill holder,

   310–311

  faceplate, 312–316

  hex wrench handles, 311

  knock-out bar, 308–309

  lazy susan drill chuck & center

   holder, 319–320

  sliding tool tray, 316

 lead

  hammer mold, 471–472

  lead pads & rod stock molds, 472

 making scrapers using carbide inserts,

  484–485

 metal stock storage, 13

 micrometer bridge, 477–478

 milling machine

  chip shield, 424–425

  stop, 422–424

 pliers, brass- or bronze-jawed, 479

 precision tap guide, 183–185

 S&D drill stand, 170–174

 shop cart, 15–16

 

Plans or concepts for making/machining

 (continued)

 shop-made

  carbide milling cutters, 377

  single-lip milling cutter welding

   fixture, 497

  small end mill holder, 382

 spur drive & center for wood turning,

  425–426

 storage shelves, 11

 tap extensions, 167, 186

 tool rests, 97–99

 turn-screw tightening handle, 498

 upgrading budget bandsaw, 210–212

 vise, removable table-mounted, 5

 wheel, diamond dresser, 480–481

 workbench, 2

Pliers

 brass- or bronze-jawed, 479

 modifying Vise-Grip, 489–490

Processes

 blackening, 50

 bluing, 50

Punches

 center, 27–28

 precision guides for Whitney,

  procedure, 450–451

 Osborne, 446–447

 roll pin, making, 483

 texturing, making, 446

 transfer, oversized, 155

 

Reamed hole sizes, increasing & decreasing, procedure, 180

Reamer

 chatter, causes of, 176

 basic assortment, 175–176

Reaming

 for dowel pins, procedure, 178–179

 speeds & feeds, 17

Repair plugs, making & installing,

 procedure, 443–444

Rockwell

 hardness formula, 52

 typical hardness numbers, 53–54

Rust

 preventing, 48–49

 removal, 49–50

 

Safety, 31–32

 bandsaw, horizontal or cut-off, 213

 drill press, 162

 grinder, 130

 lathe, 322

 milling machine, 428

Scrapers, shop-made, procedure, 484–485

Screws, nuts & bolts, improving security

 of, 466–467

Scribers, 26

Setting up shop, 1

Shafts

 stubbing out, procedure, 458–460

 tightening threaded, 447

Sharpening center punches, 28

Slide hammers, 487–489

Spacer & stand-off design, 501

Speeds, drill press, 142

Square, alignment of carpenters’, 475

Stamps, steel marking on critical surfaces,

 443

Steady rests, 285–286

Steel

 advertising claims, stainless, 47

 alloying elements, 40

 carbon

  plate & bar sizes, 31

  cold-rolled, 36

  finishes, 35

  free-machining, 40

  hot-rolled, 35

  pickled & oiled, 37

  products, 32

 hardening processes, 50–51

 low-carbon, 38–39

  Starrett № 498, 39

 main categories, 38

 numbering systems, 37–38

 oil-hardening, Starrett № 496 & № 480 

 stock, standard & special, differences, 35

 stainless, 46–47

 tool, 41–43

Storage for

 collets & end mills, 10

 end mills, drills & taps, 10

 files, 9

 granite plates, 25

 grinders, 9

 hammers, 8

 metal stock, 13

 rod goods, 11

Stretching metal to flatten parts, 448–449

Studs, clamping, applying wrenching flats

 to, 367–368

Surface grinders, 124–126

 

Tamper-proof screws & bolts, 465–466

Tapers

 Brown & Sharp, 68–69

 functions & designs, 63

 comparison of designs, 69

 Jacobs, 65

 making male MTs, 71

 measuring, 64

 Morse, repairing, 69

 NMTB, 68

 securing on chucks, 66

 types of 65

Tapping

 hint for, 182

 machinery shafts in place, procedure,

  155–156

 small screw threads, procedure,

  182–183

Taps, spiral point, 180–182

Threads,

 ID thread chasers, 462–463

 inside tubing, adding, 501–502

 OD thread chasers, 461–462

 reforming tool, 463

 repair chisels, 463–464

 repair combs, 461

 repair dies, 460

 repair files, 461

T-bolts

 damage to milling table, 366

 preparing for use, 340

 with strap clamps, 363–365

T-nuts, 502–503

Torsion resistant frame design, 505–506

Trimming, vinyl & rubber, 449–450

Tubing, accurately positioning small,

 507–508

Twist drill (see Drills)

 

V-belt repair link, emergency, 498–499

Vises, 4

 milling, cranks on, 342–343

 pin, applications, 473–474

 speed, 7

 toolmakers’ grinding, 362

 two-piece milling, 362

Vortex tubes, cooling with, 62

 

Washers, hardened, 73

Wheels

 cutoff, 170–107

 deburring & finishing, 109

 flap, 110–111

 wire, 111

Wiggler pointer, 349–350

Wire

 frames, 508–509

 Nichrome repair method, 458

 piano

  bending, 501

  pliers for bending, 479–480

  straight edge, 503–505

Workbenches, 1–4

Wrench, pin, for collet block nut,

 492–493

 

 

 

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